After the refined cotton is treated with alkali, cellulose ether is produced through a series of reactions with methane chloride as etherification agent. Generally, the degree of substitution is 1.6~2.0, and the solubility is also different with different degrees of substitution. It belongs to non-ionic cellulose ether.
(1) Methylcellulose is soluble in cold water, and it will be difficult to dissolve in hot water. Its aqueous solution is very stable in the range of pH=3~12. It has good compatibility with starch, guar gum, etc. and many surfactants. When the temperature reaches the gelation temperature, gelation occurs.
(2) The water retention of methyl cellulose depends on its addition amount, viscosity, particle fineness and dissolution rate. Generally, if the addition amount is large, the fineness is small, and the viscosity is large, the water retention rate is high. Among them, the amount of addition has a great influence on the water retention rate, and the level of viscosity is not directly proportional to the level of water retention rate. The dissolution rate mainly depends on the degree of surface modification of cellulose particles and particle fineness. Among the above cellulose ethers, methyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose have higher water retention rates.
(3) Changes in temperature will seriously affect the water retention rate of methyl cellulose. Generally, the higher the temperature, the worse the water retention. If the mortar temperature exceeds 40°C, the water retention of methyl cellulose will be significantly reduced, seriously affecting the construction of the mortar.
(4) Methyl cellulose has a significant effect on the construction and adhesion of mortar. The "adhesion" here refers to the adhesive force felt between the worker's applicator tool and the wall substrate, that is, the shear resistance of the mortar. The adhesiveness is high, the shear resistance of the mortar is large, and the strength required by the workers in the process of use is also large, and the construction performance of the mortar is poor. Methyl cellulose adhesion is at a moderate level in cellulose ether products.
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is a cellulose variety whose output and consumption have been increasing rapidly in recent years. It is a non-ionic cellulose mixed ether made from refined cotton after alkalization, using propylene oxide and methyl chloride as etherification agent, through a series of reactions. The degree of substitution is generally 1.2~2.0. Its properties are different due to the different ratios of methoxyl content and hydroxypropyl content.
(1) Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is easily soluble in cold water, but it will encounter difficulties in dissolving in hot water. But its gelation temperature in hot water is significantly higher than that of methyl cellulose. The solubility in cold water is also greatly improved compared with methyl cellulose.
(2) The viscosity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is related to its molecular weight, and the larger the molecular weight, the higher the viscosity. Temperature also affects its viscosity, as temperature increases, viscosity decreases. However, its high viscosity has a lower temperature effect than methyl cellulose. Its solution is stable when stored at room temperature.
(3) The water retention of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose depends on its addition amount, viscosity, etc., and its water retention rate under the same addition amount is higher than that of methyl cellulose.
(4) Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is stable to acid and alkali, and its aqueous solution is very stable in the range of pH=2~12. Caustic soda and lime water have little effect on its performance, but alkali can speed up its dissolution and increase its viscosity. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is stable to common salts, but when the concentration of salt solution is high, the viscosity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution tends to increase.
(5) Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose can be mixed with water-soluble polymers to form a uniform and higher viscosity solution. Such as polyvinyl alcohol, starch ether, vegetable gum, etc.
(6) Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose has better enzyme resistance than methylcellulose, and its solution is less likely to be degraded by enzymes than methylcellulose. The adhesion of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose to mortar construction is higher than that of methylcellulose.
It is made by treating refined cotton with alkali, then reacting with ethylene oxide as etherification agent in the presence of acetone. The degree of substitution is generally 1.5~2.0. It has strong hydrophilicity and is easy to absorb moisture.
(1) Hydroxyethyl cellulose is soluble in cold water, but it is difficult to dissolve in hot water. Its solution is stable at high temperature without gelling. It can be used for a long time under high temperature in mortar, but its water retention is lower than that of methyl cellulose.
(2) Hydroxyethyl cellulose is stable to general acid and alkali. Alkali can accelerate its dissolution and slightly increase its viscosity. Its dispersibility in water is slightly worse than that of methyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose.
(3) Hydroxyethyl cellulose has good anti-sag performance for mortar, but it has a longer retarding time for cement.
(4) The performance of hydroxyethyl cellulose produced by some domestic enterprises is obviously lower than that of methyl cellulose due to its high water content and high ash content.
Ionic cellulose ether is made from natural fibers (cotton, etc.) which are treated with alkali and used as etherification agent through a series of reaction treatments. The degree of substitution is generally 0.4~1.4, and its performance is greatly affected by the degree of substitution.
(1) Carboxymethyl cellulose is highly hygroscopic, and it will contain relatively large amounts of water when stored under normal conditions.
(2) Carboxymethyl cellulose aqueous solution will not produce gel, and the viscosity will decrease with the increase of temperature. When the temperature exceeds 50℃, the viscosity is irreversible.
(3) Its stability is greatly affected by pH. Generally, it can be used in gypsum-based mortar, but not in cement-based mortar. When highly alkaline, it loses viscosity.
(4) Its water retention is far lower than that of methyl cellulose. It has a retarding effect on gypsum-based mortar and reduces its strength. However, the price of carboxymethyl cellulose is significantly lower than that of methyl cellulose
Since the performance of HPMC is similar to other water-soluble ethers, it can be used in emulsion paints and water-soluble resin paint components as film-forming agents, thickeners, emulsifiers and stabilizers, etc., so that the coating film has good wear resistance. Leveling and adhesion, and improved surface tension, stability to acid and alkali, and compatibility to metallic pigments. Because the gel point of HPMC is higher than that of MC, its resistance to bacterial erosion is also stronger than other cellulose ethers, so it can be used as a thickener for water-emulsion paints. HPMC has good viscosity storage stability, and it has excellent dispersibility, so it is especially suitable as a dispersant in emulsified coatings.